Overhead cranes are generally composed of bridge, lifting mechanism, crane and trolley travelling mechanisms, control room, trolley conductive device, main power conductive device, etc.
Bridge is the basic component of the overhead crane, which is composed of the main beam, the end beam, and the platform. The main beam is generally box-shaped structure. End beams are connected at both ends of the main beam, and a walking platform is installed outside the two main beams, with safety railings. The platform on the side of the cab is equipped with crane running mechanism, and platform on the other side is equipped with a device that supplies power to the electric equipment of the trolley, that is, the auxiliary sliding wire. Through the crane running mechanism, the overhead crane moves along the guide rail throughout the workshop.
Lifting mechanism is composed of motor, reducer, drum, brake, etc. The motor is connected to the reducer through the coupling and the brake wheel, and the output shaft of the reducer is connected to the drum wound with the steel wire rope. The other end of the wire rope is connected to a hook. When the drum rotates, the hook rises or lowers with the winding or unwinding of the wire rope on the drum. For overhead cranes with a lifting capacity of 15t and above, there are two sets of lifting mechanisms, namely the main hook and the auxiliary hook.
Crane travelling mechanism
Crane travelling mechanism is composed of motor, transmission shaft, reducer, wheel and brake. There are two driving modes: centralized driving and separate driving.
Trolley travelling mechanism
Trolley is placed on the bridge rail and can move along the width of the workshop. It is mainly made of welded steel plates, and consists of a trolley frame, a trolley running mechanism and a lifting mechanism on it.
There are two transmission forms of the trolley running mechanism: one is that the reduction gear box is located between the two driving wheels; the other is that the reduction gear box is installed on one side of the trolley. The former makes the torque experienced by the transmission shaft more uniform; the latter makes installation and maintenance more convenient.
There are crane and trolley running mechanisms control devices, lifting mechanism control devices and crane protection devices in the control room.
The cab is generally fixed at one end of the main beam, and a few are mounted below the trolley to move with the trolley. A hatch opening to the walking platform is opened above the cab for maintenance personnel to get on and off when servicing crane and trolley mechanisms and electrical equipment.
There are three directions of overhead crane motion:
- Overhead crane is driven by the crane motor to move longitudinally back and forth along the two sides of the track on the runway beams.
- Trolley and lifting mechanisms on the bridge girder are driven by the trolley motor to make lateral left and right movement along the track of the main beam.
- The lifting motor drives the hook to perform vertical lifting movement.
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